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    供应商质量管理与控制的有效方法

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    供应商质量管理与控制的有效方法
    Supplier quality management and control of the effective method
    供应商提供的商品?#20013;?#22320;满足采购方的要求,采购方应根据实际情况,采取以下有效的管理与控制方法。
    Suppliers to provide products continue to meet the procurement requirements, the purchaser shall according to the actual situation, take the following effective management and control method.
    1)        制定联合质量计划
    1) the development of joint quality plan
    采?#21512;?#20195;商品,不仅购买商品本身,而?#19968;?#35201;购买供应商在产品设计、制造工艺、质量控制、技术帮助等方面的能力。要有效地购买供应商的这种能力,需要把供需双方的能力对等协调起来,协调的办法就是制定联合质量计划。联合质量计划中一般要包括经济、技术、管理等三个方面。
    Procurement of modern commodity, not only to buy the commodity itself, but also to purchase supplier in product design, manufacturing processes, quality control, technical assistance and other abilities. In order to effectively purchase supplier in this capacity, the need to supply and demand sides of the ability to peer coordination, coordinated approach is to develop joint quality plan. Joint quality plan to include economic, technology, three aspects of management.
    (1)经济方面。这方面的内容包括进行价值分析,?#21592;?#21327;助采购者从合同中取得最大的价值;对成本、质量和交货期等方面进行综合平衡,?#21592;?#23454;现最佳成本;对使用费用进行审查,使产品整个寿命周期成本降到最低水?#20581;?#22312;有些情况下,共同制定经济方面的计划可以修正合同中的担保条款或现场服务的条款。
    ( 1) the economic aspects. The content includes the value analysis, in order to assist the buyer from contract to achieve maximum value; on the cost, quality and delivery and other aspects of comprehensive balance, in order to achieve the best cost; to use costs are reviewed, so that the whole product life cycle cost is reduced to the lowest level. In some cases, jointly developed the economic aspects of the plan can be modified in the contract of guarantee clause or field service terms.
    (2)技术方面。需要制定一系列的技术计划,这涉及到采购方和供应商双方的各自职能。主要包括:
    ( 2) the technical aspects. Need to develop a series of technical plan, which relates to the buyer and supplier of both their respective functions. Mainly include:
    ①产品设计。在这方面的计划是搞清技术条件要求的含义,识别对产品的安全性和功能起重要作用的质量特性,拟定关于可靠性及其他有关的要求,必要时还要提供感官检验标准。
    Product design. In this aspect of the plan is to make clear the meaning of technical requirements, identification of product safety and function play an important role in the quality characteristics, drawn on for reliability and other relevant requirements, necessary to provide sensory inspection standard.
    ②工艺设计。这方面的计划是指在供应商内分配生产作业,共同使用高、精、尖设备,明确关键工序的参数及其含义,建立识别和追查的体系。当采购方认为双方共同协商的工艺设计对它的独特需要是必不可少时,可以提出要求,没有得到采购方的认可,事先不得擅自改变工艺设计和操作方法。
    The process of design. This plan is defined in the supplier distribution in production operations, the common use of high, fine, sharp equipment, clarify the key process parameters and its meaning, establish the identification and tracing system. When the purchaser that mutual consultation process design for its unique needs is essential, can request, no purchaser approval, without changing the prior process design and method of operation.
    ③生产。这方面的计划是指对人员培训和考核的要求,如,工序装置的标准,加工控制程序表,设备维护保养表,资料和文件的要求。
    The production of. This plan is refers to the personnel training and assessment requirements, such as, process device standards, process control program, equipment maintenance, information and documentation requirements.
    ④检验与测试。这方面的计划是指涉及计量、测试方法的标准化,测试设备的能力及定期检验,此外还涉及质量标准。
    The inspection and testing. This plan is refers to the measurement, test method standard, testing equipment capacity and regular inspection, moreover also relates to the quality standard of.
    (3)管理方面。这方面的计划主要是识别必不可少的管理活动,并且建立明确的责任制来进行活动。此外,还要进行沟通买卖双方渠道的工作,建立迅速、灵敏的信息反馈系统,变单向交流沟通为双程式多向沟通。在复杂的合同中,各种程序和制度也相应地变得复杂起来,需要绘制流程图和规定特殊的条款,?#21592;?#35777;沟通路线畅通无阻。
    ( 3) the management of. This program is mainly to identify essential management activities, and establish a clear responsibility to carry out activities. In addition, but also for buyers and sellers to communicate channel work, establish rapid, sensitive information feedback system, variable one-way communication program for two ways of communication. In the complex contracts, various procedures and system correspondingly became complicated, need to draw a flow chart and the provisions of special terms, in order to ensure the smooth operator communication line.
    2)向供应商派常驻代表
    2) to the supplier sent resident representative
    为直接掌握供应商商品质量状况,可由采购方向供应商派出常驻代表,其主要职责是向供应商提出具体的商品质量要求,了解该供应商质量管理的有关情况,如质量管理机构的设置,质量体系文件的编制,质量体系的建立与实施,产品设计、生产、包装、检验等情况,特别是对出厂前的最终检验和试验要进行监督,对供应商出具的质量证明材料要核实并确认,起到在供应商内进行质量把关的作用。对具有长期稳定的业务联系,建立固定的?#21512;?#20851;系,采购批量大、技术性强、对质量要求严格的供应商,采购方还可派出质检组常驻供应商,不但对商品质量进行全程、全面地检查?#22270;?#30563;,而?#19968;?#35201;监督买卖合同的全面执行,保证及时生产、及时发货,满足采购方各方面的要求。同时质检组还可向供应商?#20174;?#24050;购产品在使用过程中的问题和对产品新的要求,促使供应商改进和提高产品质量并不断开发用户所需要的新产品。
    Direct supplier product quality status, by purchasing direction supplier sent resident representative, its main duty is to put forward specific commodity supplier quality requirements, the supplier quality management of the situation, such as quality management institution, compiling documents of quality system, quality system establishment and implementation, product design, production, packaging, testing and so on, especially to the factory before the final inspection and testing are to be monitored, the supplier quality issued documents to verify and confirm, played in the supplier quality check function. On the long-term stability of business contacts, establish a fixed relationship between the buying and selling, purchasing large quantities, technical strong, strict quality requirements to the suppliers, buyers can also sent inspection group permanent supplier, not only on the quality of goods for full, comprehensive inspection and supervision, and supervision of contract full implementation, ensure timely production, timely delivery, to meet the various requirements of purchaser. At the same time the QC group can also reflect the purchased products from suppliers in the use process problem on products and new requirement, push supplier to improve and enhance product quality and continuous development of user needs new products.
    此方法是供应商质量管理与控制常用的一种方法,其优点主要有以下几点。
    This method is the supplier quality management and control is a kind of commonly used method, its main advantages are the following.
    (1)对供应商商品质量进行全程、全面地检查?#22270;?#30563;,能及时发现问题,便于供应商及时返工,降低了供应商的质量成本。
    ( 1) the supplier product quality full, comprehensive inspection and supervision, to find the problem in time, to facilitate suppliers timely rework, reducing the supplier's quality cost.
    (2)从源头发现问题,便于快速反应,对企业获得优质采购商品有利。
    ( 2 ) from the source to find problems, to facilitate rapid response, high-quality procurement of goods for the enterprise to obtain favorable.
    (3)可根据本企业实际使用情况及进货质量控制IOC情况,专门严格检查某个项目,针对性强。
    ( 3) according to the enterprise actual situation and quality control of IOC, devoted to the rigorous examination of a project, strong pertinence.
    定期或不定期监督检查
    Regular or irregular supervision and inspection
    (4)及时掌握供应商生产状况的变化
    ( 4) grasp the supplier status changes
    由于企?#30340;?#22806;部环境的变化,供应商的生产状况必然也会随之变化。采购方应及时掌握其变化的情况,对生产发生的一些重大变化,应要求供应商及时向采购方报告。如产品设计或结构上的重大变化、制造工艺上的重大变化、检验和试验设备及规程方面的重大变化等,供应商都应向采购方主动报告?#24471;?#24773;况。采购方接到报告后,要认真分析情况,必要时应到供应商那直接了解,主要应弄清对产品质量的影响。在多数情况下供应商变更产品设计,采取新材料、新设备、新工艺是为了提高商品的质量和生产效率,?#21592;?#35777;商品质量是有益的。但?#19988;?#24517;须注意到,任何改变都有一个适应的过程,在变更的初始阶段容易造成商品质量的不稳定。这就需要通过加强最终检验和试验来把关。
    Due to the change of environment of Ministry of enterprise inside and outside, the supplier's production status will change. The purchaser shall grasp its change situation, the production of some of the major changes, should require the supplier to purchase party report. Products such as the design and structure of the major changes, major changes in the manufacturing process, inspection and test equipment and procedures of major change, the supplier shall actively report to explain the situation to purchaser. Buy side after receiving the report, should be analysed seriously, when necessary, to understand the direct suppliers, mainly should make clear the effect on product quality. In most cases the supplier product design, adopt new materials, new equipment, new technology to improve product quality and production efficiency, to ensure the quality of the commodity is useful. But also we should pay attention to, any kind of change is a process of adaptation, in the initial stage of change is easy to cause the instability of product quality. This need by strengthening the final inspection and testing to ensure.
    3定期排序
    3 regular sort
    排序的主要目的是评估供应商的质量及综合能力,以及为是否保留、更换供应商提供决策依据。排序的一般准则如下:
    Sort the main purpose is to assess the supplier 's quality and comprehensive ability, as well as for whether to retain, replacement of suppliers to provide basis for decision making. Sort of general guidelines are as follows:
    (1) SOA供应商质量保证批合格率:一般要求不能低于95%。
    ( 1) the SOA supplier quality assurance qualified rate of not less than 95%: General requirements.
    (2)IOC批合格率:一般要求不能低于95%。
    ( 2) the IOC batch passing rate of not less than 95%: General requirements.
    (3)商品?#24230;?#21518;的质量问题:一般要求总的工序直通合格率不低于85%(因产品不同而有较大差异)。
    ( 3) the quality of commodity inputs: General requirements general process through the qualified rate of not less than 85% (due to different products and have bigger difference ).
    (4)回复纠正行动报告CAR的态度和速度:需及时响应,对问题做出令人信服的分析,并有纠正预?#26469;?#26045;(或更改作业文件,或进行工序改善等)。
    ( 4) corrective action report CAR attitude and velocity: a timely response, to make a compelling analysis, and corrective and preventive action ( or change a file, or process improvement etc.).
    (5)交货期履行情况:能积极履行合约,并对延期交货做出合理?#24471;鰲?BR>( 5) delivery performance: can actively performing the contract, and to make reasonable description of delayed delivery.
    (6)审核结果:审核的?#36136;?#33267;少在60分以上。
    ( 6) results of audits: audit scores at least 60 points.
    (7)与本企业人员的配合:在各项事务中与需方积极配合,协作良好。
    ( 7 ) and the enterprise staff to cooperate in various affairs with: the active cooperation, coordination and good.
    以上项目乘积作为总分,供排序用。排序周期一般为?#32771;?#24230;一次或半年一次。
    The above project product as total score, for sorting by. Ranking cycle is generally once a quarter or half a year.
    4帮助供应商导入新的体系和方法;
    4 help suppliers into a new system and method;
    为有效地控制采购商品的质量,采购方应对供应商导入自己多年总结出的先进质量管理手段?#22270;?#26415;方法,主动地帮助、指导供应商在短时间内极大地提升质量管理水平?#22270;?#26415;水平,增强质量保证能力。采购方对供应商给予一定的帮助对供应商是有利的,对采购方自己也是有利的。对供应商的帮助是多方面的,主要目的不是扩大生产能力而是提高商品质量。以提高质量为中心,可帮助供应商组织有关人员的技术培训,进行设备的技术改造,实现检验和试验的标准化、规范化。贯彻ISO9000族标准,争取质量体系认证,帮助供应商导入6Sigma系?#36710;取?#23545;供应商的帮促重点是加强商品质量的薄弱?#26041;冢?#35299;决影响商品质量的关键问题。
    In order to effectively control the procurement of goods quality, the purchaser with the supplier to import their own years summed up the advanced quality management methods and techniques, to help, guide supplier in a short period of time, greatly enhance the quality management level and technical level, enhance the capacity of quality assurance. The purchaser to the supplier to give some help to the supplier is favorable, the purchaser was favorable. Supplier for help in many aspects, the main objective is not to expand production capacity but to improve the quality of the goods. In order to improve the quality as the center, to help suppliers to organize relevant personnel and technical training, equipment technical reformation, to realize the inspection and test standardization, standardization. The implementation of ISO9000 standard, strive for quality system certification, to help suppliers into 6Sigma system. The supplier to help promote the key is to strengthen the weak links in commodity quality, solve the key problems affecting product quality.

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